Incommunicable attributes of God are ones that are less shared with us, and communicable attributes are more shared with us. Here is a look from Systematic Theology by Wayne Grudem on what it teaches in regards to the characteristics of God.
Incommunicable Attributes Of God
- Independence: God does not need us or the rest of creation for anything, yet we and the rest of creation can glorify him and bring him joy (Acts 17:24-25).
- Unchangeableness: God is unchanging in his being, perfections, purposes, and promises, yet he acts and feels emotions in response to different situations (Psalms 102:25-27).
- Eternity: God has no beginning, end, or succession of moments in his own being, and he sees all time equally vividly, yet God sees events in time and acts in time (Psalms 90:2).
- Omnipresence: God does not have size or spatial dimensions and is present at every point of space with his whole being, yet God acts differently in different places (Psalms 139:7-10).
- Unity: God’s attributes are not divided into parts, yet we see different attributes emphasized at different times (Exodus 34:6-7).
The Communicable Attributes Of God
- Attributes of Being
- Spirituality: God is not made of matter, has no parts or dimensions (John 4:24).
- Invisibility: God’s total essence, all of his spiritual being, will never be able to be seen by us, yet he shows himself to us through visible, created things (1 Timothy 1:17).
- Mental Attributes
- Knowledge (omniscience): God fully knows himself and all things actual and possible (past, present, and future) in one simple eternal act (1 John 3:20).
- Wisdom: God always knows and chooses the best goals and the best means to them. Wisdom is a moral and intellectual quality (Romans 16:27).
- Truthfulness: God always represents things as they really are. All of God’s knowledge and words are true and the final standard of truth (Jeremiah 10:10-11).
- Faithfulness: God will always do what he has said and fulfill what he has promised (Numbers 23:19).
- Moral Attributes
- Goodness: All that God is and does is worthy of approval, and he is the final standard of goodness (Luke 18:19).
- Love: God is freely and eternally giving of himself for the good of others (1 John 4:8).
- Mercy: God’s kindness toward those in misery and distress (2 Samuel 24:14).
- Grace: God’s kindness toward those who deserve only punishment (Romans 9:15).
- Patience: God’s kindness in withholding punishment of those who sin over a period of time (Exodus 34:6).
- Holiness: God is separated from sin and devoted to seeking his own honor (Isaiah 6:3).
- Peace: In God’s being and actions he is separate from all confusion and disorder, yet he is continually active in innumerable well-ordered, fully controlled, simultaneous actions (1 Corinthians 14:33).
- Righteousness (justice): God always acts in accordance with what is right and is himself the final standard of what is right (Deuteronomy 32:4).
- Jealousy: God continually seeks to protect his own honor (Isaiah 48:11).
- Wrath: God intensely hates all sin (Romans 1:18).
- Attributes of Purpose
- Will: God approves and determines to bring about every action necessary for the existence and activity of himself and all creation (Ephesians 1:11).
- Freedom: God does whatever he pleases (Psalms 115:3).
- Omnipotence (power): God is able to do all his holy will (Matthew 19:26).
- Summary Attributes
- Perfection: God completely possesses all excellent qualities and lacks no part of any qualities that would be desirable for him (Matthew 5:48).
- Blessedness: God delights fully in himself and in all that reflects his character (1 Timothy 6:15).
- Beauty: God is the sum of all desirable qualities (Psalms 73:25).
- Glory: The created brightness that surrounds God’s revelation of himself (Psalms 24:10).
*Resources Added From Wayne Grudem, Systematic Theology